Dental cavities. They are mainly caused by bacteria present in bacterial plaques which transform sugars into destructive acid for the dental enamel. Decalcification causes small cavities in the enamel which then enable the bacteria to penetrate deeply, therefore damaging more internal tissues such as the dentin. If a cavity is noticed during its initial phase, it can be solved with a simple filling. If it penetrates deeply, the tooth has to be first devitalized and then reconstructed. Bacteria act on sugars during the first 10/15 minutes after meals and during the night, if there are remains of food. It is therefore very important to brush teeth after each meal: morning, noon and evening. We also have to pay attention to baby teeth in kids since they can be easily attacked by cavities. An essential aid is the floss, which enables us to remove the plaque in places not reached by the toothbrush. The presence of old inaccurate fillings enables the plaque to easily become stagnant, therefore accelerating the process described above.
The abscess is a collection of pus inside periodontal pockets, dental alveoli or in the apical area of the teeth with a deep cavity. When it happens, we feel a strong pain in the most internal part of the tooth and a swelling, together with a rise in temperature and a swelling of the lymph nodes. The periodontal abscess reabsorbs the bone and therefore makes the tooth mobile. It is associated to a strong pain, it increases sensitivity and we feel a bad taste.
Gengivitis is mainly caused by the collection of bacterial plaque which transforms into tartar. It is an inflammation of the gums which become red and often bleeding. The toothbrush can increase the pain and the gum often pulls back, leaving the tooth base uncovered and very sensitive. Traumas such as excessive brushing, lack of vitamins, debilitating diseases, smoke and abuse of alcohol can cause a gingivitis.
Dental neuralgia is caused by the inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. It is the one which confers sensitivity to the skin of the face and to the upper part of the head. It can cause intense and throbbing pain and a feeling similar to an electric shock which can last up to a couple of minutes with irregular intervals. The trigeminal neuralgia can occur at mandibular level, in the maxillary district and in the ophthalmic one.